Jump to content

How to use HTML character entities to display symbols and characters in HTML documents

+ 5
  dannyg1's Photo
Posted Oct 27 2009 02:21 PM

To display symbols and characters beyond the collection of common ASCII alphanumeric values (0–127), browsers recognize a special coding that lets you insert such characters into HTML document content. These entity characters start with an ampersand symbol (&) and end with a semicolon (;). Between those symbols goes a representation of the desired character in your choice of letters or numbers. For example, the numeric entity value for a copyright symbol is 169. An HTML statement using that symbol looks as follows:

<p style="text-align: center">&#169;2002 MegaCorp, Inc. All Rights Reserved.</p>

Because the numbering system is not easy to remember, entities also have case-sensitive word or abbreviation equivalents for their values. For the copyright symbol, for example, the entity is &copy;. This makes the code more readable, as in the following:

<p style="text-align: center">&copy;2002 MegaCorp, Inc. All Rights Reserved.</p>

This table lists every entity defined in the HTML 4 specification in alphabetical order. Recent browsers support the vast majority of these characters, but the user's operating system version and its internal character set also influence whether a visitor's browser will render any particular character.

Alpha entityNumeric entityCharacterDescription
&Aacute;&#193;ÁCapital letter A with acute
&aacute;&#225;áSmall letter a with acute
&Acirc;&#194;ÂCapital letter A with circumflex
&acirc;&#226;âSmall letter a with circumflex
&acute;&#180;´Acute accent
&AElig;&#198;Æ Capital ligature AE
&aelig;&#230;æSmall ligature ae
&Agrave;&#192;À Capital letter A with grave
&agrave;&#224;àSmall letter a with grave
&alefsym;&#8501;Alef symbol
&Alpha;&#913;ΑCapital letter alpha
&alpha;&#945;α Small letter alpha
&amp;&#38;&Ampersand
&and;&#8743; Logical and
&ang;&#8736;Angle
&Aring;&#197;Å Capital letter A with ring above
&aring;&#229;åSmall letter a with ring above
&asymp;&#8776; Almost equal to
&Atilde;&#195;Ã Capital letter A with tilde
&atilde; &#227;ã Small letter a with tilde
&Auml;&#196;ÄCapital letter A with diaeresis
&auml;&#228;ä Small letter a with diaeresis
&bdquo;&#8222;Double low-9 quotation mark
&Beta;&#914;Β Capital letter beta
&beta;&#946; βSmall letter beta
&brvbar;&#166;¦ Broken vertical bar
&bull;&#8226;Bullet
&cap;&#8745; Intersection
&Ccedil;&#199;Ç Capital letter C with cedilla
&ccedil; &#231;ç Small letter c with cedilla
&cedil;&#184;¸Cedilla
&cent;&#162;¢ Cent sign
&Chi;&#935;ΧCapital letter chi
&chi;&#967;χ Small letter chi
&circ;&#710; ^Modifier letter circumflex accent
&clubs;&#9827; Black club suit (shamrock)
&cong;&#8773;Approximately equal to
&copy;&#169; © Copyright sign
&crarr;&#8629; Downwards arrow with corner leftwards (carriage return)
&cup; &#8746; Union
&curren;&#164;¤Currency sign
&dagger;&#8224; Dagger
&Dagger;&#8225;Double dagger
&darr;&#8595; Downwards arrow
&dArr;&#8659;Downwards double arrow
&deg;&#176;° Degree sign
&Delta;&#916;ΔCapital letter delta
&delta;&#948; δ Small letter delta
&diams;&#9830; Black diamond suit
&divide; &#247;÷ Division sign
&Eacute;&#201;ÉCapital letter E with acute
&eacute;&#233;é Small letter e with acute
&Ecirc;&#202;ÊCapital letter E with circumflex
&ecirc;&#234;ê Small letter e with circumflex
&Egrave;&#200; ÈCapital letter E with grave
&egrave;&#232;è Small letter e with grave
&empty;&#8709;Empty set/null set/diameter
&emsp;&#8195; Em space
&ensp;&#8194;- En space
&Epsilon; &#917;Έ Capital letter epsilon
&epsilon;&#949;έSmall letter epsilon
&equiv;&#8801; Identical to
&Eta;&#919;Capital letter eta
&eta;&#951;η Small letter eta
&ETH;&#208; ðCapital letter ETH
&eth;&#240;Ð Small letter eth
&Euml;&#203;ËCapital letter E with diaeresis
&euml;&#235; ë Small letter e with diaeresis
&euro;&#128; Euro sign
&exist; &#8707; There exists
&fnof;&#402;ƒSmall f with hook
&forall;&#8704; For all
&frac12;&#189;½Fraction one-half
&frac14;&#188;¼ Fraction one-quarter
&frac34;&#190; ¾Fraction three-quarters
&frasl;&#8260; Fraction slash
&Gamma;&#915;ΓCapital letter gamma
&gamma;&#947; γ Small letter gamma
&ge;&#8805; Greater-than or equal to
&gt; &#62;> Greater-than sign
&harr;&#8596;Left right arrow
&hArr;&#8660; Left right double arrow
&hearts;&#9829;Black heart suit
&hellip;&#8230;... Horizontal ellipsis
&Iacute;&#205; ÍCapital letter I with acute
&iacute;&#237;í Small letter i with acute
&Icirc;&#206;ÎCapital letter I with circumflex
&icirc;&#238; î Small letter i with circumflex
&iexcl;&#161;¡ Inverted exclamation mark
&Igrave; &#204;Ì Capital letter I with grave
&igrave;&#236;ìSmall letter i with grave
&image;&#8465; Blackletter capital I
&infin;&#8734;Infinity
&int;&#8747; Integral
&Iota;&#921; ƖCapital letter iota
&iota;&#953;ι Small letter iota
&iquest;&#191;¿Inverted question mark
&isin;&#8712; Element of
&Iuml;&#207;Ï Capital letter I with diaeresis
&iuml; &#239;ï Small letter i with diaeresis
&Kappa;&#922;ΚCapital letter kappa
&kappa;&#954;κ Small letter kappa
&Lambda;&#923;ΛCapital letter lambda
&lambda;&#955;λ Small letter lambda
&lang;&#9001;Left-pointing angle bracket (bra)
&laquo;&#171;« Left-pointing double angle quotation mark (guillemet)
&larr;&#8592;Leftwards arrow
&lArr;&#8656; Leftwards double arrow
&lceil;&#8968; Left ceiling
&ldquo; &#8220;" Left double quotation mark
&le;&#8804;Less-than or equal to
&lfloor;&#8970; Left floor
&lowast;&#8727;*Asterisk operator
&loz;&#9674; Lozenge
&lrm;&#8206; Left-to-right mark
&lsaquo; &#8249;<Single left-pointing angle quotation mark
&lsquo;&#8216;'Left single quotation mark
&lt;&#60;< Less-than sign
&macr; &#175;ӣMacron (overline)
&mdash;&#8212; Em dash
&micro;&#181;µMicro sign
&middot;&#183;· Georgian comma
&minus;&#8722;Minus sign
&Mu;&#924;Μ Capital letter mu
&mu;&#956;μSmall letter mu
&nabla;&#8711; Nabla
&nbsp;&#160; Nonbreaking space
&ndash; &#8211;En dash
&ne;&#8800;Not equal to
&ni;&#8715;Contains as member
&not;&#172;¬Not sign (discretionary hyphen)
&notin;&#8713; Not an element of
&nsub;&#8836;Not a subset of
&Ntilde;&#209;Ñ Capital letter N with tilde
&ntilde;&#241;ñSmall letter n with tilde
&Nu;&#925; Ν Capital letter nu
&nu;&#957;ν Small letter nu
&Oacute; &#211;Ó Capital letter O with acute
&oacute;&#243;óSmall letter o with acute
&Ocirc;&#212;Ô Capital letter O with circumflex
&ocirc;&#244;ôSmall letter o with circumflex
&OElig;&#338;ΠCapital ligature OE
&oelig;&#339; œSmall ligature oe
&Ograve;&#210;Ò Capital letter O with grave
&ograve;&#242;òSmall letter o with grave
&oline;&#8254; Overline
&Omega;&#937;Ω Capital letter omega
&omega; &#969;ω Small letter omega
&Omicron;&#927;ΌCapital letter omicron
&omicron;&#959;ο Small letter omicron
&oplus;&#8853;Circled plus
&or;&#8744; Logical or
&ordf;&#170; ªFeminine ordinal indicator
&ordm;&#186;º Masculine ordinal indicator
&Oslash;&#216;ØCapital letter O with stroke
&oslash;&#248; Small letter o with stroke
&Otilde;&#213;Õ Capital letter O with tilde
&otilde; &#245;õ Small letter o with tilde
&otimes;&#8855;Circled times
&Ouml;&#214;Ö Capital letter O with diaeresis
&ouml;&#246;öSmall letter o with diaeresis
&para;&#182; Paragraph (pilcrow) sign
&part;&#8706;Partial differential
&permil;&#8240; Per mille sign
&perp;&#8869;Up tack/orthagonal to/perpendicular
&Phi;&#934; Φ Capital letter phi
&phi;&#966;Φ Small letter phi
&Pi; &#928;Π Capital letter pi
&pi;&#960;πSmall letter pi
&piv;&#982;ϖ symbol
&plusmn;&#177;±Plus-or-minus sign
&pound;&#163;£ Pound sign
&prime;&#8242;Prime/minutes/feet
&Prime;&#8243; Double prime/seconds/inches
&prod;&#8719;N-ary product (product sign)
&prop;&#8733; Proportional to
&Psi;&#936;Ψ Capital letter psi
&psi; &#968;ψ Small letter psi
&quot;&#34;"Quotation mark
&radic;&#8730; Square root
&rang;&#9002;Right-pointing angle bracket (ket)
&raquo;&#187;» Right-pointing double angle quotation mark (guillemet)
&rarr;&#8594;Rightwards arrow
&rArr;&#8658; Rightwards double arrow
&rceil;&#8969;Right ceiling
&rdquo;&#8221; " Right double quotation mark
&real;&#8476; Blackletter capital R
&reg; &#174;® Registered trademark sign
&rfloor;&#8971;Right floor
&Rho;&#929;Ρ Capital letter rho
&rho;&#961;ρSmall letter rho
&rlm;&#8207; Right-to-left mark
&rsaquo;&#8250; Single right-pointing angle quotation mark
&rsquo; &#8217;'Right single quotation mark
&sbquo;&#8218;Single low-9 quotation mark
&Scaron;&#352;ŠCapital letter S with caron
&scaron;&#353;šSmall letter s with caron
&sdot;&#8901;Dot operator
&sect;&#167; §Section sign
&shy;&#173; Soft hyphen (discretionary hyphen)
&Sigma;&#931;ΣCapital letter sigma
&sigma;&#963;σSmall letter sigma
&sigmaf;&#962;ςSmall letter final sigma
&sim;&#8764;~Tilde operator
&spades;&#9824;Black spade suit
&sub;&#8834; Subset of
&sube; &#8838;Subset of or equal to
&sum;&#8721;N-ary sumation
&sup;&#8835;Superset of
&sup1;&#185;¹Superscript digit one
&sup2;&#178;²Superscript digit two (squared)
&sup3;&#179; ³ Superscript digit three (cubed)
&supe;&#8839; Superset of or equal to
&szlig; &#223;ß Small letter sharp s (ess-zed)
&Tau;&#932;ΤCapital letter tau
&tau;&#964;τ Small letter tau
&there4;&#8756;Therefore
&Theta;&#920;Θ Capital letter theta
&theta;&#952; ΘSmall letter theta
&thetasym;&#977;ϑ Small letter theta symbol
&thinsp;&#8201; Thin space
&THORN;&#222;Þ Capital letter thorn
&thorn; &#254;þSmall letter thorn
&tilde;&#732;~ Small tilde
&times;&#215;×Multiplication sign
&trade;&#8482; Trademark sign
&Uacute;&#218;ÚCapital letter U with acute
&uacute;&#250;ú Small letter u with acute
&uarr;&#8593;Upwards arrow
&uArr;&#8657; Upwards double arrow
&Ucirc;&#219; ûCapital letter U with circumflex
&ucirc;&#251;Û Small letter u with circumflex
&Ugrave;&#217;ÙCapital letter U with grave
&ugrave;&#249; ù Small letter u with grave
&uml;&#168;¨ Diaeresis
&upsih; &#978;ϒ Upsilon with hook symbol
&Upsilon;&#933;Capital letter upsilon
&upsilon;&#965; Small letter upsilon
&Uuml;&#220;ÜCapital letter U with diaeresis
&uuml;&#252;ü Small letter u with diaeresis
&weierp;&#8472;Script capital P
&Xi;&#926;Ξ Capital letter xi
&xi;&#958;ξSmall letter xi
&Yacute;&#221; Ý Capital letter Y with acute
&yacute;&#253;ý Small letter y with acute
&yen; &#165;¥ Yen/yuan sign
&Yuml;&#376;ŸCapital letter Y with diaeresis
&yuml;&#255;ÿ Small letter y with diaeresis
&Zeta;&#918;ΖCapital letter zeta
[inlinecode]&zeta;[/inlinecode][inlinecode]&#950;[/inlinecode]ζ Small letter zeta
[inlinecode]&zwj;[/inlinecode][inlinecode]&#8205;[/inlinecode] Zero width joiner
[inlinecode]&zwnj;[/inlinecode] [inlinecode]&#8204;[/inlinecode] Zero width nonjoiner



Tags:
0 Subscribe


1 Reply

 : Apr 25 2010 06:46 PM
thanks!
UML CASE Tools